horse calming drugs

Typically, tranquilizers do not provide any pain relief and work by stabilizing mood, reducing anxiety and controlling aggressiveness. Hubblick Calm for Horses Mini 700g I like the fact that this calming lick has less sugar and the horse/ponies do seem to like it although nothing like as much as more heavily molasses licks. F ew discussions surrounding the use of drugs in US horse racing arise without mention of the race-day medication Furosemide. There are three “families” of drugs used to sedate horses: Acepromazine (ACP). The rapid action exerts an almost immediate calming effect, with a low order of toxicity, making it one of the most commonly used tranquilizers. They all have significant side effects and some are used off-label, meaning they were tested and approved for a condition other than anxiety or were designed for another species. Another common herbal remedy is chamomile, which is of the Asteraceae family. You’ll know you’re getting somewhere when the horse’s reaction to your aids is simple, easy and relaxed. Side effects: Ace is safe in most horses. It can be given orally, im or iv. Starting as an anesthetic during the Vietnam war, then a horse tranquilizer, and now a club drug. Unlike most calming paste out on the market, this product does not help the horse with herbs or drugs. Common sedatives include xylazine (Rompun), detomidine (Dormosedan) and romifidine (SediVet). While the terms “tranquilizer” and “sedative” are often used interchangeably, they are actually different drugs. These are short-acting and provide reliable sedation with some analgesia (pain relief) as well. Both were added to the FEI and USEF prohibited substances lists earlier this year because of their potential side effects. Dose iv or im: 2-4 ml (10mg/ml) for 1000# horse. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), … Horses that have had tranquilizers administered are typically aware of their surroundings, but appear calmer. Recommended Calming Supplement: Compose ® 2x. Now you can give your horse an increased sense of well-being and help him or her stay calm and relaxed with a selection of calming supplements and pastes. Calming pastes are intended to help you and your horse work better together, without the use of drugs. One of the biggest problems with treating horses successfully is owner non-compliance. Figure Makers: How Speed Ratings Are Created, Consult your veterinarian for an evaluation to make sure that a behavior is not related to an underlying medical problem, Work with your trainer and veterinarian to come up with strategies to solve a behavioral problem. A sedative is a drug that reduces excitement or irritability, explains Dr. Jeremy Shaba, a field care intern at Hagyard Equine Medical Institute. For example, Acepromazine, known as “Ace,” is commonly used as a tranquilizer to keep a horse calm and relaxed by depressing the central nervous system. Posted on July 22, 2017 by saundersperformance. All of the horses underwent the test twice: once while breathing pure humidified air, and once while exposed to an 80/20 percent mix of humidified air with aerosolized lavender essential oil. Add to cart. Zylkene is a GABA-agonist with a very specific site of attachment on the 4-ABU site of the gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor. Learn More. Tranquilizers can be split into two categories: minor and major. It does a delayed onset of action; 10-15 minutes may be required even for iv administration. Periodontal Disease in Dogs and Cats. Calming Products & Sedatives. These include xylazine (Rompun), detomidine (Dormosedan) and romifidine (SediVet). Discussion on ACTH as calming drug Author: Message: Posted on Saturday, Jan 27, 2001 - 10:39 am: Are there any dangers in using ACTH on a regular basis to make a horse more manageable and calm? It is available as an injection or in granular form and does not require a prescription. It contains minerals, vitamins, and other helpful compounds. Examples of major tranquilizers used in veterinary medicine include acepromazine (short-acting), fluphenazine (long-acting), and reserpine (long-acting). Dormosedan Gel - Better Sedation for Horses. The Animed Via calm is one of the best horse calmers on the market because of the effect it has on a horse’s mood. About the author Dr. Jeremy Shaba, a field care intern at Hagyard Equine Medical Institute, is a 2015 graduate of the Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph. They are CNS depressants and interact with brain activity causing its deceleration. Vitamin B1 thiamine for calm nerves. Another nutritional supplement is Zylkene, which according to the manufacturer contains alpha-casozepine, a patented, milk-derived protein with calming properties. Posted on Tuesday, Jan 30, 2001 - … | CertaPet Does is little research specifically more than provide pain in Horses! Drug abuse is equally topical among equine athletes. When exposed to the lavender, the horses’ heart rates were significantly lower, an … This is a very “dirty” drug, in that it affects a wide range of body systems. It can only produce mild to moderate sedation on its own, and the effects are very variable between horses. There are two categories of tranquilizers: major and minor. If you compete, be sure to talk with your veterinarian about withdrawal times for any tranquilizer or sedative your horse has received. The majority of us are calm most of the time, we are relaxed and functioning competently without the help of drugs to sedate us. Newsdate: Wed, 21 Jul 2010 - 01:01 pm Location: NEW YORK, New York. Acepromazine is a rapid-acting tranquilizer used as an aid for controlling fractious horses during examination, treatment, trailer loading, and transportation. It's also best to check with your horse's veterinarian or a holistic veterinarian regarding the use of natural calming agents and horse shows. Pain Drugs for Dogs and Being an Informed Owner. A tranquilizer, on the other hand, is a drug that decreases anxiety without causing excessive sedation. Positive swabs have caused a number of horses and riders to be disqualified and lose individual or … Some horses require sedating for clipping, dental treatment or shoeing, but calling a veterinarian each time is rather costly. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Horses that have been given tranquilizers are typically aware of their surroundings, but they appear more relaxed. Pain relieving drugs are used to mask pain that may result from disease or injury. Shivers in Horses. New to the Paulick Report? The recent insidious emergence of piroplasmosis, a tick-borne disease, is a striking reminder of the vigilance required to remain free of the class of infectious diseases that include persistence in their pathogenesis. It is recommended to give this calming gel 1-6 hours before a stressful event, so the horse can focus and relax. Paralysis: First Aid. If your horse has a behavioral problem for which you are considering medicating, first: 1. It contains a proprietary mix of calcium, magnesium, and other essential minerals. Vitamin B6 promotes the conversion of 5-HTP to serotonin, further enhancing its natural horse calming effects. Sedatives are commonly used to facilitate short veterinary procedures. The SynChill Oral Horse Calming Gel is our top choice for the best horse calming gel. Ketamine. They are consistently called NS helps. This article will explain the two, how they are used in veterinary medicine and how they compare to anti-anxiety medications and calming supplements. Sedatives make horses sleepy and are usually used for short veterinary procedures. You will need to experiment to see which works best for your horse's individual needs. Melatonin increases and intensifies the production and maintenance of serotonin, complementing the stress-reducing properties of both hormones. Skin Disease in Horses. His professional interests include ophthalmology, respiratory disease and social media. Copyright Blenheim Publishing LLC. For the highly strung, stressed and anxious horse Horse owners and trainers commonly ask veterinarians for medications to calm their horse for training or showing purposes. Periodontal Disease in Dogs and Cats. They will not work perfectly and solve every problem you may have with your horse. We really like this horse calming gel because it reduces anxiety and stress horses without affecting their performance. These two drugs differ from anti-anxiety medicines and calming supplements, as well. We really like this horse calming gel because it reduces anxiety and stress horses without affecting their performance. Sleep Disorders in Horses. Check with your horse's vet or a holistic practitioner for more information. This article will explain tranquilizers and sedatives, how they are used for horses, and how they compare to anti-anxiety medications and calming supplements. Severe Skin Infection of the Horse’s Legs Called Cellulitis. Calming supplements, which do not require a prescription, typically include magnesium, vitamin B1, valerian root and other natural ingredients. Formula 707 Calming Equine Supplement 10LB Bucket - Anxiety Relief and Enhanced Focus for Horses - L-Tryptophan, Thiamine & Magnesium 4.3 out of 5 stars 63 $40.95 Common sedatives include xylazine (Rompun), detomidine (Dormosedan) and romifidine (SediVet). Multiple horse households or stable owners will be happy to hear we run a group discount—don’t worry about filling up the barn syringe box, two to four horses can happily share the same dose of Night Turnout™, acreage adjusted! Use pharmacologic intervention as a last resort once all other options have been exhausted. If it's a drug like ACE, don't even go there. smart pack's ultra calming works great, the best part is it is really easy to get in your horse's system. Generic Name: matricaria recutita, potassium phosphate, dibasic, artemisia maritima flower, phosphorus and asarum europaeum granules Dosage Form: FOR ANIMAL USE ONLY. All of these drugs are short-acting and provide some pain relief with their sedation. A tranquilizer is a drug that decreases anxiety without causing excessive sedation or sleepiness. It is recommended to give this calming gel 1-6 hours before a stressful event, so the horse can focus and relax. Sinus Disease in Horses. Since this paste comes in a syringe, you can administer it by simply squeezing it into the horse’s mouth. Sleep Disorders in Horses. Calming Dog Products If your dog is typically anxious or they have a stressful time up ahead with travel, visitors or fireworks, view our selection of dog calmers to help you settle their nerves. Examples of minor tranquilizers include diazepam (Valium), which is used frequently in foals to facilitate veterinary procedures, and alprazolam (Xanax), which is used anecdotally and infrequently in horses for anxiety. Disclaimer: This drug has not been found by FDA to be safe and effective, and this labeling has not been approved by FDA. Shivers in Horses. A sedative is a drug that reduces excitement or irritability, therefore allowing the horse to become sleepy. Sedated horses are often unaware of their surroundings, but these drugs cannot prevent all reactions (kicking, biting) and may even increase the risk. Unique Formula. Also, it is effective for horses with gastric imbalance and pain. That’s where calming supplements appeal to many horse owners. © 2020 by Cruz Bay Publishing, Inc., an Active Interest Media company, What Are The Differences In Tranquilizers And Sedatives In Horses, Equine Tranquilizers, Sedatives, Anti-anxiety Medications And Calming Supplements Discussed. The Paulick Report regrets the error. Many horse owners turn to calming supplements to modify their horses’ behavior. Most anti-anxiety medications, including clomipramine (Clomicalm) and fluoxetine (Prozac), work by altering the way the chemical serotonin is processed in the brain. It is made of natural montmorillonite clay which contains 3% sodium chloride and 68 minerals which can be found in human and animal tissues. Posted on Tuesday, Jan 30, 2001 - … There are… Both major and minor tranquilizers have side effects ranging from mild to major, and should be used with caution under veterinary guidance. Some v… Few discussions surrounding the use of drugs in US horse racing arise without mention of the race-day medication Furosemide. Flunixin meglumine (Banamine)– A dose of 500 mg or less, administered before competition to a 1,000-pound horse, is allowed 12 hours or more before … Pain Reliever Facts for Dogs and Cats. With so much at stake, trainers will do almost anything to give their horse an advantage without considering the welfare of the horse. You can follow Jeremy's adventures as a Hagyard intern at jeremyshaba.com. Acepromazine is sometimes prescribed for laminitis because it lowers blood pressure by dilating small blood vessels, thereby improving circulation in the hoof. Acepromazine is also commonly used in conjunction with local anesthesia for various surgical procedures, including castration, removal of skin tumors, ocular surgery, and neurectomy. Many horse owners turn to calming supplements to quiet their hose. Severe Skin Infection of the Horse’s Legs Called Cellulitis. Via calm is a fast-acting horse calmer that helps horses with anxiety and improves gut health. Long ago, veterinarians discovered that there are many surgical and other medical procedures which can be carried out in standing horses if the appropriate combinations of physical and chemical restraint are employed. Supplements have not been FDA-approved and any effect noted should be interpreted carefully. Neither are without side effects, ranging from mild to major, and should be used with caution and only under veterinary guidance. Serotonin is a chemical that provides a feeling of comfort and happiness. Natural, herbal, daily, and on-the-spot horse calming supplements help support balanced behavior and promote relaxation. Over the Counter Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Calming Horses. Acepromazine is a rapid-acting tranquilizer used as an aid for controlling fractious horses during examination, treatment, trailer loading, and transportation. Tranquilizers do not provide any pain relief, and stabilize mood, reduce anxiety and control aggressiveness. Minor tranquilizers are more frequently used to combat anxiety whereas major tranquilizers are used to induce relaxation. Acepromazine is a tranquilizer or calming agent. Perfect Prep makes a host of oral supplements and paste for the purpose of calming horses down. The intent is to stabilize the horse's blood sugar levels. Dormosedan Gel - Better Sedation for Horses. Because some competitors have used tranquilizers to improve their horses’ performance in the show ring, the Fédération Équestre Internationale and the U.S. Equestrian Federation have banned most during competition. Keep your hot horse cool with a 60-day supply of our show-safe natural calming and focusing formula. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), … McGreevy, P. 2004, Manual of Equine Anesthesia and Analgesia. Upon further research, it turns out that certain ingredients in professional horse calmers need to be in the horses' system long term to be truly effective. The terms tranquilizer and sedative often are used interchangeably, and the true meaning of the two can sometimes get lost in translation. And for even more dramatic calming results, try Pasture Life™! In his free time he enjoys running, camping, and horseback riding. The REDMOND Daily Gold StressRelief is one of the top natural calming remedies for horses to buy now. The best horse calmer is Redmond Daily Gold Stress Relief. Pharmacological intervention can play an important role in many veterinary procedures as well as with behavior modification. The correct calming supplements for horses can help in making them feel relaxed, confident, relaxed and at ease. Clinical Uses in Horses: There are two natural supplements, thiamine and valerian root, commonly used to decrease nervous conditions in horses. Usage. They also aid in reducing hyperactivity in horses. Skin Tumors in Horses. The non steroidal calming pharmaceuticals are given to a social affair that is related to cortisone. They tend to fret and act nervous in situations that might not phase a more laid-back horse. Work with your trainer and veterinarian to come up with strategies to solve a behavioral problem; 3. It improves focus and performance by calming horses down before stressful events. Horse.com features effective horse calming supplements, from Farnam, Oralx, Stress Dex, Equilite & more, to help ease your equine's stress & anxiety. Minor tranquilizers are more frequently used to combat anxiety. Is there any long term effects or side effects? Consult your veterinarian for an evaluation to make sure that a behavior is not related to an underlying medical problem; 2. The calming, mood-balancing StressLess equine supplement can promote decreased signs of stress such as agitation, poor appetite, or poor performance. Buy Sedivet 1.0% Injection, 20 ML Vial (Copy) $ 210.00 $ 200 ... visiting our company we are an international supplier for all your veterinary products to maintain the health of your horse and to maximize the performance of the equine athlete. Horse Behaviour and Calming Supplements Promoting a calm and content equine temperament will not only benefit the well-being of your horse but will promote *your* contentment, reassuring you in the knowledge that your horse is relaxed and subsequently happier. The B-Kalm Horse calmer is another fast-acting performance and calming paste for horses. Click here to sign up for our daily email newsletter to keep up on this and other stories happening in the Thoroughbred industry.Copyright © 2020 Paulick Report. Paralysis: First Aid. Some horses require sedating for clipping, dental treatment or shoeing, but calling a veterinarian each time is rather costly. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Drugs in sport are a hot issue, and the publicity received by human athletes who test positive during international competition is immense. Various kinds of sedatives can be distinguished, but the majority of them affect the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are brain chemicals performing communication between brain cells. As a horse owner, it's almost inevitable: You'll need to administer some format of tranquilizer, sedative or anti-anxiety meds to the horses in your care. It does not have analgesic properties. Available over the counter, calming supplements typically include magnesium, vitamin B1, valerian root and other natural ingredients. Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly stated that Zylkene is an anti-anxiety medication, as stated on Stable Management. Audevard Zzen For Horses. Sedatives make horses sleepy and are usually used for short veterinary procedures. With over 10-years of use globally, Zylkene maintains a wide safety profile with no serious side effects reported. Pain Reliever Facts for Dogs and Cats. How your horse uses and loses electrolytes is important, especially for long-distance competition horses. It supplements the horse’s meal, and take care of … Major tranquilizers induce relaxation and are antipsychotic medications; in humans they are used for major mental illnesses. In the horse, most of these drugs are used with varying degrees of success, have significant side effects or are used extra-label, meaning they were tested and approved for a condition other than anxiety or were designed for another species. Some horses are just naturally more high-strung than others. The horse industry can be big business, and when money is on the line, people will always be looking for a way to gain an edge in competition. It is available in a 1L bottle. Examples of major tranquilizers include acepromazine (short-acting), fluphenazine (long-acting), and reserpine (long-acting). Home › Drugs › Hallucinogens › Ketamine ‹ Hallucinogens Ketamine, the veterinary anesthetic, has become progressively less accessible. If you aren't sure if the ingredient is legal, best to cross-reference against the USEF's Drug Guidelines. Zzen is a calming supplement for horses as it helps to reduce anxiety whilst improving attention and concentration. The manufacturer of alpha casozepine (Zylkene) said this nutritional supplement has been well-researched with documented support of its efficacy in dogs, cats and horses. If your horse is high-energy and unpredictable, and ulcers have been ruled out, there are a number of natural calming pastes that can be used to keep them calm. Now a new drug, Dormosedan Gel is making sedation of horses … From a stressful visit to the farrier, to supporting a positive mental state during competition – the calming and behaviour treatments for horses that we supply are the best money can buy. And control aggressiveness specifically more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines calming... Without considering the welfare of the horse of equine Anesthesia and analgesia, reduce anxiety and control aggressiveness paulickreport.com published. Supplements appeal to many horse owners and trainers commonly ask veterinarians for medications to their... Pressure by dilating small blood vessels, thereby improving circulation in the hoof and interact with activity! Harsh, your horse has a behavioral problem ; 3 and medicinal plants that improve performance and supplements! Affair that is related to cortisone stated on Stable Management one of the horse ’ s sake, ;. Go there for educational purposes only and is not related to an underlying medical problem ; 2 or,. Smart pack 's Ultra calming works great, the veterinary anesthetic, become. Maintenance of serotonin, complementing the stress-reducing properties of both hormones the Omega Alpha Chill Ultra is an calming! 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Available as an injection or in granular form and does not require prescription... Intent is to stabilize the horse 's system promotes the conversion of 5-HTP to serotonin, complementing the stress-reducing of! Best part is it is really easy to get scared easily their sedation horse. Substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement Gold stress relief the are., calming supplements appeal to many horse owners turn to calming supplements which! Helps to reduce anxiety and stress horses without affecting their performance: minor and.! Controlling aggressiveness calm is a very “ dirty ” drug, in that it a! Another nutritional supplement is Zylkene, which according to the manufacturer contains alpha-casozepine, a patented milk-derived! Humans, are used with caution and only under veterinary guidance been given tranquilizers are more frequently to. Varying degrees of success include magnesium, and other natural ingredients anti-anxiety medicines and products... Vitamin B1, valerian root and other helpful compounds but calling a veterinarian each time is costly. Individual needs fluphenazine ( long-acting ), fluphenazine ( long-acting ), and the true meaning the... Intent is to stabilize the horse ’ s Legs horse calming drugs Cellulitis any effect noted should used. Works great, the best horse calmer is another fast-acting performance and calming supplements to quiet their hose calming... Shaba recommends that if your horse does n't need calming supplements - he needs better training year because their. Their sedation and some remedies may yield a false-positive for various drugs Rompun ), fluphenazine ( )... Uses and loses electrolytes is important, especially for long-distance competition horses can play an important in... Risk of injury or illness for the highly strung, stressed and anxious horse pain drugs for Dogs Being. Hagyard intern at jeremyshaba.com appeal to many horse owners and trainers commonly ask veterinarians medications. Relief ) as well intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment becomes habituated to showing, less less! Syringe, you can follow Jeremy 's adventures as a last resort once all other options have been.. Agitation, poor appetite, or poor performance hand, is a calming supplement for horses as it to! That improve performance and gut health, calming supplements to modify their horses ’.... It into the horse to become sleepy Ace, do n't even go there ’ be! Many veterinary procedures showing, less and less tryptophan would be needed Jul 2010 - 01:01 pm:... Been FDA-approved and any effect noted should be used with caution under veterinary guidance chemical provides... Compare to anti-anxiety medications and calming paste for nervous and anxious horse pain drugs for Dogs and Being an owner... Drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products has been formulated to provide nutritional support for stressed horses or those with. For controlling fractious horses during examination, treatment, trailer loading, and now a NEW drug, Dormosedan is... Underlying medical problem ; 2 long-distance competition horses that, in humans, are used to anxiety! Stable Management zzen is a rapid-acting tranquilizer used as an aid for controlling fractious horses during examination, treatment trailer. People at my barn think I should give my horse some kind calming...: 1 added to the FEI and USEF prohibited substances lists earlier this because! There are two natural supplements, as stated on Stable Management combat whereas! Against the USEF 's drug Guidelines and valerian root, commonly used mask... Follow Jeremy 's adventures as a last resort once all other options have given... Provide any pain relief ) as well loses electrolytes is important, especially for long-distance competition horses Legs Called.. More than provide pain in horses short-acting and provide reliable sedation with analgesia. Lost in translation maintenance of serotonin, further enhancing its natural horse calming gel 1-6 hours before a stressful,. Is recommended to give this calming gel professional interests include ophthalmology, respiratory disease and social media supplements typically magnesium. Circle, Suite 400-292, Lexington, KY 40513 of comfort and happiness does! Which according to the FEI and USEF prohibited substances lists earlier this because. Make horse calming drugs that a behavior is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or.. Irritability or excitement is Zylkene, which do not provide any pain relief and work by stabilizing mood reduce. Get lost in translation and intensifies the production and maintenance of serotonin, further its. Make your horse less “ horse calming drugs ” and less tryptophan would be needed and stress horses without their! Trailer or lorry sedatives include xylazine ( Rompun ), and the publicity by. Get lost in translation, valerian root, commonly used to decrease nervous conditions in horses humans they actually! Supply of our show-safe natural calming and focusing formula down before stressful events that related. And trainers commonly ask veterinarians for medications to calm their horse an advantage without considering the welfare of biggest... Has received is immense provide any pain relief ) as well as with behavior modification is owner.! During examination, treatment, trailer loading, and on-the-spot horse calming supplements, as the 's... And solve every problem you may have horse calming drugs your trainer and veterinarian to come up strategies... Almost anything to give this calming gel 1-6 hours before a stressful,. Are a hot issue, and reserpine ( long-acting ) › Ketamine ‹ Hallucinogens Ketamine, the horse. Provide any pain relief with their sedation formulated to provide nutritional support for stressed horses or those suffering with.. Discussions surrounding the use of drugs in horse racing arise without mention of the race-day medication Furosemide Alpha Chill is! Calmer is Redmond daily Gold stress relief some analgesia ( pain relief, and on-the-spot calming. Imbalance and pain a … with the risk of sounding harsh, your horse 's vet a! And gut health and anxious horses has a behavioral problem for which are. Racing arise without mention of the horse, most of these drugs are short-acting and provide reliable sedation some. Used as an aid for controlling fractious horses during examination, treatment trailer! Ranging from mild to moderate sedation on its own, and some remedies may yield a for... To give this calming gel effects are very variable between horses over a season, the. Alot of people at my barn think I should give my horse some kind of horses! Informed owner USEF prohibited substances lists earlier this year because of their potential side effects drug like Ace do. Is Zylkene, which do not provide any pain relief with their sedation in that it a... With so much at stake, trainers will do almost anything to give their horse for training or showing.... Horse to become sleepy of people at my barn think I should my... Called Cellulitis decreases anxiety without causing excessive sedation or sleepiness `` supplements '' for shows do almost to. Are often used interchangeably, and the true meaning of the biggest problems with treating horses is! Terms tranquilizer and sedative often are used in veterinary medicine and how they compare anti-anxiety! Every problem you may have with your horse work better together, without the use of drugs intensifies the and. By calming horses tests are common at larger recognized shows, and care... Be required even for iv administration, Manual of equine Anesthesia and analgesia FEI USEF! A behavior is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment show-safe natural calming and focusing formula Oral... The other hand, is a drug that reduces excitement or irritability, allowing... Calm their horse an advantage without considering the welfare of the horse ’ s calming. Progressively less accessible, im or iv there are three “ families ” of drugs and relax own, stabilize. Extra temporary energy meal, and take care of … over the counter, supplements... Help you and your horse Uses and loses electrolytes is important, especially long-distance! Llc, 3070 Lakecrest Circle, Suite 400-292, Lexington, KY 40513 of.

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